## Understanding Object Localization with Deep Learning

##
Understanding Object Localization with Deep Learning

*Object localization is one of the image recognition tasks along with image classification and object detection. Though object detection and object localization are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not the same. Similarly, image classification and image localization are also two distinct concepts.*

## Different Object recognition tasks

**Image classification** is a task where an image is classified into one or multiple classes based on the task.

**Input:** an image

**Output:** one or multiple class(es)

**Image/Object localization** is a regression problem where the output is determined by “x” and “y” coordinates around an object of interest by drawing bounding boxes.

**Input:** an image

**Output:** “x”, “y”, height, and width numbers around an object of interest

**Object detection** is a complex problem that combines the concepts of image localization and classification. Given an image, an object detection algorithm would return bounding boxes around all objects of interest and assign a class to them.

**Input:** an image

**Output:** “x”, “y”, height, and width numbers around all object of interest along with class(es)

While this is a quick introduction to the various object recognition tasks, we focus on **image or object localization** tasks in this article. We briefly discuss two widely used algorithms that are the go-to solutions for Engineers working in computer vision and Edge detection.

### What is image Localization and how is it different?

Image localization is a spin-off of regular CNN vision algorithms. These algorithms predict classes with discrete numbers. In object localization, the algorithm predicts a set of 4 continuous numbers, namely, x coordinate, y coordinate, height, and width, to draw a bounding box around an object of interest.

In CNN-based classifiers, initial layers are convolutional neural network layers ranging from a couple of layers to 100 layers (e.g., ResNet 101), and that depends on the application, amount of data, and computational resources available. The number of layers is itself a large area of research. After the CNN layers, there is a pooling layer and then one or two fully connected layers. The last layer is the output layer which gives a probability of an object being present in an image. For example, suppose an algorithm identifies 100 different objects in a given image. Then, the last layer gives an array length of 100 and values ranging from 0 to 1 that denote the probability of an object being present in an image.

In an image localization algorithm, everything is the same except the output layer. In classification algorithms, the final layer gives a probability value ranging from 0 to 1. In contrast, localization algorithms give an output in four real numbers, as localization is a regression problem. As discussed above, those four values are used to draw a box around the object.

### The loss function for object localization

Any machine learning algorithm aims to predict values as close to realistic figures as possible. Supervised machine learning algorithms use the loss function and learn by minimizing loss using weight or parameters optimization.

Object location being a regression problem, any regression loss function applicable to an N-dimensional array can be used. For example, L1 distance loss, L2 distance, Huber loss, and so on. From the above, L2 distance loss is used widely by industry practitioners and research communities.

### L2 distance

L2 distance is also known as Euclidean distance. It is a distance between two points in N-dimensional space and is calculated by applying the Pythagorean theorem on the cartesian coordinates of points. This approach works for any N-dimensional space.

To understand L2 distance, let us assume two points P and Q, in a three-dimensional space. Points P and Q are represented as (p1, p2, p3) and (q1, q2, q3) in the cartesian coordinate systems. The distance between those points is defined as:

Distance (P, Q) = sqrt ((p1 – q1) ² + (p2 – q2) ² + (p3 – q3) ²)

The optimization algorithm tries to minimize Euclidean distance between the ground truth and the predicted value; lower the L2 distance between the prediction and the ground truth, better the algorithm.

### Evaluating Image Localization algorithm

When we build machine learning models for the real world, we must evaluate such models for their effectiveness and performance on unseen data points. We rely on an evaluation metric to check the veracity of different models on real-world data points. For the Image localization task, Intersection over Union (IoU) is a widely used evaluation metric.

To calculate IoU, we consider both the ground truth bounding box and the predicted bounding box.

For example, consider the image below, the green box is the ground truth bounding box and the red box is the predicted bounding box.

IoU is simply the ratio of intersection and union, where the intersection is the area of overlap between the ground truth bound box and the predicted bounding box. In contrast, the union is the total area covered by both bounding boxes together.

An ideal range of IoU should be between 0 to 1.1. When the IoU value is close to 0, it indicates that the prediction is the same as ground truth values and vice versa. When the intersection area is more significant, the IoU value approaches 1.

After evaluating metrics, here are a few other algorithms that industry practitioners widely prefer:

- R-CNN (region-based CNN)
- Fast and Faster R-CNN (improved version of R-CNN)
- YOLO (highly efficient object detection framework)
- SSD (single shot detectors)

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